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MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
Horace, for "ie serois trop long a deduire par le
menu ce propos que ce grand Aristote en ses
Poetiques, et apres luy Horace (mais non auec
telle subtilitS) ont continue' plus amplement et
mieux que moy." w Vauquelin de la Fresnaye,
as quoted above, gives a clear statement of the
rule, which he translates directly from Horace.
As he wrote too late to influence most of the
writers of tragedy in the sixteenth century, his
lines are of value chiefly in showing the trend of
contemporary thought and confirming facts estab-
lished by examination of the plays.
This comparative neglect by critics of a rule
which dramatists were careful to observe goes to
show that the sixteenth century theorists did not
lead the poets and that, when the two agree, it is
rather because both go back to the same source
than because the former's rules were followed by
the latter. References to Horace by Bonsard and
la Taille, taken in connection with Vauquelin' s
translation of his Ars poetica, indicate his influ-
ence upon those interested in the drama. It is
undoubtedly from him that the dramatists derived
the formal rule of three interlocutors, which they
found illustrated by Seneca's plays.
To sum up briefly, I conclude that the Greek
rule of three actors was interpreted by the French
to mean three interlocutors, according to their
understanding of Horace's precept and Seneca's
usage ; that the rule, thus modified, was carried
out by the chief writers of French sixteenth cen-
tury tragedy, by Beza, Jodelle, Saint-Gelais,
Grevin, Bounin, Gamier ; that Montchrestien
violated it only once ; that such usage is another
indication of the academic nature of the French
genre and of Seneca's powerful influence upon it ;
and that in this matter the sixteenth century
dramatists followed the Latin masters directly,
rather than the theorists of their own day.
H. Carkington Lancaster.
18 1! Art de la Tragedie, 3b.
THE Fambib 0,vebnm AND Amis and
Embedded in the structure of the Faerie Queene
are fragments of the medieval romances which
present something of the curious interest of the
bits of Roman wall and the like, here and there
appearing in the foundations of some noble cathe-
dral. The business of identifying the disjecta
membra of these earlier, less pretentious poets,
though something has been done, 1 is as yet by no
means complete. No apology, therefore, is neces-
sary in putting on record a somewhat obvious
identification of this sort, hitherto unnoted in
print ; especially since the parallel proposed is of
sufficient extent to illustrate Spenser's method of
incorporating in his own the work of the elder
To summarize briefly parts of the 7th, 8th, and
9th cantos of the Faerie Queene, Book rv : Amo-
ret, in the cave of the giant Lust, learns from her
fellow prisoner, Aemylia, how she, keeping tryst
with her lover, the Squire of Low Degree, with
whom she had arranged "away to flit," found in
his stead " the Carle of hellish kind," Lust, who
has since confined her in his cave ; whence they
are all rescued later by Belphoebe
Arthur slays the basilisk-eyed monster Gor-
flambo, who is in pursuit of a squire holding a
dwarf before him on his horse. From the squire
— Placidas — he learns Aemylias' fate and also the
fact that the Squire of Low Degree, when he
arrived at the tryst, met there this giant Oor-
flambo, who cast him into his dungeon. Here
1 Thomas Warton, Observations on the Faerie Queene, 2nd
ed., London, 1762, 1, § 2 : "Of Spenser's Imitations from
M. Walther, Malory's Einfluss auf Spenser's Faerie
Queene. Heidelberg diss. Eisleben, 1898.
J. B. Fletcher, "Huon of Bordeux and the Faerie
Queene." Jownal of Germanic Philology, n, pp. 203-112.
J. B. Macarthur, " The Influence of Huon of Bordeux
upon the Faerie Queene. " Journal of Germanic Philology,
iv, pp. 216-238.
£. K. Broadus, " The Bed Cross Knight and Lybeaus
Deseonus." Mod. Lang. Notes, xvui, p. 202 f.
J. J. Jusserand, Literary History of the English People,
New York, 1906, vol. n 1 , p. 495, mentions a parallel
between Britomart's innamoramento and an incident in
Ortunez de Calahorra's Espejo de Principes, etc, 1562.
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxiii, No. 6.
he was discovered by the giant's fair daughter
' To whom she did her liking lightly cast,
And wooed him her paramour to bee :
From day to day she woo'd and prayd him fast,
And for his love him promist libertie at last.
He, though affide unto a former love,
To whom his faith he firmely ment to hold,
Yet seeing not how thence he mote remove,
But by that meanes which fortune did unfold,
Her graunted love, but with affection cold,
To win her grace his libertie to get.'
(IV, viij, 52-53.)
He succeeded in finding favor so far as to be
allowed to walk about the garden under the eye
of a dwarf. Placidas, hearing of his friend's im-
prisonment, lurked about the place until he was
apprehended by the dwarf,
'For me he did mistake that Squire to bee,
For never two so like did living creature see.'
(iv, viij, 55.)
The supposed squire was remanded to prison
for attempting to escape, where he found his
' But him the more agreev'd I found thereby :
For all his joy, he said, in that distresse
Was mine and his JSmylias libertie.
JEmylia well he lov'd, as I mote ghesse,
Yet greater love to me then her he did prof esse.'
(iv, viij, 57.)
Placidas then explained to him how he might pre-
serve his fidelity to his lady by letting him, Plac-
idas, take his place in Poeana' s ardent affections.
This plan was put into operation with such success
that Poeana again granted her supposed Squire
scope to walk at large. On one of his outings,
Placidas picked up the dwarf and fled, pursued
by the giant, the predicament from which Arthur
At the end of this recital Arthur gains entrance
to the giant's castle by a ruse, enlarges among
others the Squire of Low Degree, who falls into
Aemylia's arms, and, by the mildness of his pre-
sence, reforms Poeana into a suitable wife for
The name of the Squire of Low Degree, Amyas,
(rv, viij, 59, 63), and Aemylia, that of his lady,
suggest at once the romance of Amis and Amibun,*
which shows further several points of similarity
with our story.
(1.) The indistinguisJiable likeness of Amis nad
In al )je court was Jier no wist,
Erl, baron, swain no knigt,
Neither lef ne loJ>e,
So lyche were Jai bote of sigt
And of on waxing, ypligt,
I tel gow for soJ>e,
In al >ing ]>ey were so liche,
per was nei)>er pouer no riche,
Who so beheld hem bo>e,
Fader ne moder J>at couJ>e sain,
pat knew J* hendi children tvain,
But by J* coloure of her clot>e.
(11. 85-96 ; cf. Amis e Amilun, 11. 25-30. )
(2. ) Their perfect friendship.
So wele J>o children loued hem J>o,
Nas neuer children, loued hem so,
NoiJ>er in word no in dede.
Bitvix hem tvai, of blod & bon,
Trewer loue nas neuer non,
In gest as so we rede.
(U. 139-144; cf. Amis e Amilun, 11. 1-25.)
* I quote from the Middle English version of the ro-
mance as printed by Kolbing, AUenglisehe Bibliothek, 2.
Band, Heilbronn, 1884, with line references to the French
text in the same volume. These forms seem to stand
closest to that in which Spenser knew the story. The
Latin prose version (Kolbing, p. xcvii f. ), tells of no
wooing lady and reluctant lover : ' Comes vero Amelius
super regis filiam oculos iniecit et earn quam cito potuit
oppressit.' Almost as ardent is the Miles of the numerous
French prose versions printed during the sixteenth cen-
tury. I quote from the earliest, that of Anthonie Verard,
Paris, are. 1503. Miles has chosen Bellisant as his part-
ner : ' Mais Miles qui/e/etoit goy et iolyz et e/toit amou-
reux luy va e/traindre les dois/i ferme quelle /e e/cria et
luy di/t/ire tenez vous coy vous me blecez. Quat miles
louyt crier /i f ut /ai/y damours et /e /entit feru de ce/le
maladie et puys luy marcha /ur le pied qui nous/ignifie
que le feu/e alume' (f. xlivo). The lady returns his af-
fection and, as he is about to start on a military expedi-
tion, summons him to her chamber, and blames him. ' Car
deuant les gens mauez mbftie /igne damour et que me
voulez aymer cha/cun le vit clerement Mais ce/t fans
rai/bn. Car ie vous promectz que talent nen ay' (xlii.v°).
Miles pleads as his excuse her exceeding loveliness, and in
response to his plea for mercy she says : ' Mai» /e me vou-
lez hirer /ur le corps nq/tre /eigneur q vous me predrez a
femme par honneur ie vo' iueray saffi que iamais nauray
aultre /eigiir que vous et vous garderay loyaulment mon
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
(3.) The wooing lady, Belisaunt.
To sir Amis sche made Mr mon
& seyd opon hir play :
"Sir knigt, on J>e mine hert is brougt,
pe to loue is al mi fcmgt
Bo)>e bi nigt & day,
pat bot >ou wolt mi leman be,
Ywis, min hert brekej> a J>re,
No lenger libben y no may I "
(11. 569-576 ; of. Amis eAmilun, 11. 251-262.)
(4.) The reluctant young man, Amis.
pan stode >at hendy knigt f ul stille,
& in his hert him liked ille,
No word no spak he J>o ;
He J>ou£t : Bot y graunt hir wille,
Wib hir speche sche wil me spille.
LoJ> him was, J>at dede to don,
& wele lo)>er, his liif forgon ;
Was him neuer so wo.
& >an he frou£t, wi> outen lesing,
Better were, to graunt hir asking,
pan his liif for to spille.
(11. 646-651 ; cf. Amis e ArnHun, 11. 262-307. )
amour. Belle re/pond miles grant folie/eroye/e ie vous
reffu/oye : plain /eroye de grant trai/bn : car plus belle ne
plus meilleur ne pourroye auoir de vous. Ain/i fe con
/entirent en vne/i bonne et ferme amour . , . ' (f. xliivo).
On Miles' return, Bellisant visits him in the night, but the
lover on this occasion displays not even so much hesitation
as in the corresponding scene in the Chanson de Geste.
(Amis etAmiles und Jourdains de Blaivies, herausg. v. Kon-
rad Hofmann, 2te aufl., Erlangen, 1882, 11. 623-693). The
Bibliothlque Bleu of Alfred Delvau, Paris, 1859-62, gives
the story in substantially the form, save for modernizations
in language, of the early French prints. For a partial list
of them, see L. Oautier, Bibliographic dee Chansons de
Oeste, Paris, 1897, p. 52. The foregoing extracts suffi-
ciently show that they stand further from Spenser than the
Middle English form, especially in the name Miles (or
Milles) and in that young man's more coming-on dis-
I have not been able to find the Italian editions, Venice,
1503, Milan, 1513, 1530 (Gautier, he. eiL). They prob-
ably do not differ from the French prose ( 'Fine italien-
ische Ubersetzung des gedruckten franzosischen Yolks-
buches,' Hofmann, op. tit., p. v).
The version in Latin elegiacs of Kadulfus Tortarius
(printed by Hofmann, op. cit., xxiv-xxx), leads us to
infer possibly that the lady may have done the wooing but
give no hint of reluctance on the part of Amelius.
My object is not so much to find a definite source for
Spenser's narrative as to select for purposes of comparison
the one among many versions of the story which stands
nearest to the form in which he seems to have known it.
(5.) The substitution of one friend for the other.
Amiloun takes his friend's place in the trial by combat,
while Amis lies beside Amiloun' s wife — a sword between
them. (11. 973-1452. )
These correspondences are of themselves, I
think, sufficient to show that Spenser has incor-
porated in his narrative parts of the story of the
ideal friends of the Middle Ages. The similarity
of names places it beyond a peradventure.
Let us now presume to trace out his footing so
far as the scent holds. Suppose we adopt the
suggestion that Aemylia's ill-starred elopement is
modelled on that of Isabella's in the twelfth and
thirteenth cantos of the Orlando Furioso. 3 Spen-
ser, his imagination now started, proposes to write
the counterpart of this story — that of a young man
frustrated from keeping a tryst. A brain crammed
with romances at once suggests that the young
man who was captured while endeavoring to keep
a tryst was the Squire of Low Degree.* Now the
true counterpart to the giant Lust, who has
characteristically been substituted for Ariosto's
"turba," as the jailor of Aemylia, would be a
lustful lady. This, we may say, reminds him of
the situation in the well-known romance of Amis
and Amiloun, where Belisaunt woos the reluctant
Amis. At this point his mind leaps to the famous
pair of friends and from their adventures he adopts
the substitution of one for the other as a means of
resolving his story. This denouement does not
come in very aptly ; one fancies it were wiser of
Placidas to seek Arthur immediately on learning
of his friend's danger instead of thrusting himself
into the same prison with the risk of depriving
himself of all power to aid ; furthermore, the op-
portunity for escape, of which Placidas success-
fully availed himself, lay equally at the disposal
of Amyas. But, apt or inapt, Spenser's head-
long imagination refuses to discard so promising
an incident as the substitution of one friend for
his double, once it is laid hold on. Nothing re-
a R. E. Neill Dodge, "Spenser's Imitations from
Ariosto," Pub. Mod. Lang. Asso., xil(1897), p. 202.
*As Warton remarks (Vol. n, p. 183), 'Squire of
Low Degree' "seems to have been a phrase commonly
known and used about this time." See the edition of the
romance in the Albion Series by W. E. Mead, Boston,
1904 (pp. xi-xiij), for instances of its use. I would
simply give its application to Amyas some point.
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxiii, No. 6.
mains but to point a moral-^-the reforming effects
of magnanimity upon inordinate passion ; Foeana,
thus transformed, pairs off with the unattached
Placidas ; and the story is done.
The processes sketched above accord, at least,
■with what we may elsewhere infer concerning
Spenser's method of composition. His impetuous
fancy is no respecter of stories as such ; he tears
a venerable romance to pieces for the sake of a
few incidents ; he appropriates a name from
another ; the rest may go. He rechristens per-
sonages 5 he alters or loses the course of narrative
in his eagerness for the pictorial ; but amid all
this prodigality of appropriation and rejection that
has gone to the illustration of the Faerie Queene,
it is not unilluminating to observe, where it may
be done, "th' accesse of that celestiall thiefe."
Habby Morgan Ayees.
A CURIOUS MISTAKE IN FREYTAG'S
While looking through one of the annotated
American editions of Freytag's Die Journa-
ligten the other day, I came upon a passage
which for a time puzzled me. I shall first give
the reading, reserving my comment until later.
In the famous second scene of act two, where
Schmock and Bolz are conversing at the enter-
tainment which is given for the purpose of gaining
votes for the approaching election, I read in the
American edition in question as follows :
'Boh. Was verlangen Sie von uns, Sklave
Roms ? Wir sollten Sie Hirer Partei entziehen ?
Nimmermehr I Wir sollten Ihren politischen
Uberzeugungen Gewalt anthun? Sie zum Ab-
trunnigen machen ? Wir sollten die Schuld tragen,
8 The name Placidas would, of course, be familiar to him,
if not from the Golden Legend, from The Worthk Hystorie
of the moste Noble and Valiaunt Knight, Plasidas, etc. Gath-
ered in English verse by Iohn Partridge, in the yere of our
Lord, 1566. Printed for the Koxburghe Club, London,
I am at a loss as to the name Poeana.
dass Sie zu unserer Partei kamen ? Niemals !
Unser Gewissen ist zart, es emport sich gegen
Schmock. Wozu machen Sie sich Sorgen um
das? Ich habe bei dem Blumenberg gelernt, in
alien Richtungen zu schreiben. Ich habe ge-
schrieben links, und wieder rechts. Ich kann
schreiben nach jeder Richtung.
Boh. Ich sehe, Sie haben Charakter. Ihnen
hann's in unserer Zeitung nicldfehlen. Ihr Aner-
bieten ehrt uns, aber wir konnen es jetzt nicht
annehmen. Eine so welterschutternde Begeben-
heit, wie Ihr Ubertritt, will reiflich erwogen sein. '
I have italicized the passage which troubled me.
I asked myself what could be the meaning of the
sentence : ' Ihnen kann's in unserer Zeitung nicht
fehlen,' or more particularly, what could Freytag
in this connection have meant by the phrase ' in
unserer Zeitung ? ' Failing to solve the difficulty
as it stood, I began to suspect a typographical
error somewhere. Perhaps, I suggested to myself,
the author wrote or intended to write ' an unserer
Zeitung ' instead of ' in unserer Zeitung, ' but I
then noticed that even this proposed change with
the meaning which attaches to those three words
would, quite aside from the situation itself, be
forbidden by the very next sentence : ' Ihr Aner-
bieten ehrt uns, aber wir konnen es jetzt nicht
annehmen.' Furthermore, the whole situation
would seem to preclude such a construction. Still
clinging to the theory of a typographical error, I
found that the only other possibility of such an
error lay in the noun ' Zeitung.' This changed to
' Zeit ' would at once solve all difficulty both for the
sentence considered by itself and also if taken in
connection with what immediately precedes and
what immediately follows. The passage would then
read 'Ihnen, kann's in uuserer Zeit nicht fehlen, '
— a journalist's clever thrust at the journalism of
his time. This reading I then compared with the
German edition of Freytag's Dramatische Werke,
Band 2, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, 1890, and was grati-
fied to find my position confirmed there. The
American editor does not state upon what edition
of the play he based his text, and as the older
German editions are not accessible to me here, I
am unable to trace the error to its source. This
I regret the more, as I have since discovered to
my surprise that Jive other annotated editions of
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